Takeshita et al. 2008

Mol. Biol. Cell, 19(1):339-351.

Apical sterol-rich membranes are essential for localizing cell end markers that determine growth directionality in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Mol. Biol. Cell, 19(1):339-351.

Takeshita, N., Higashitsuji, Y., Konzack, S. & Fischer, R.



In filamentous fungi, hyphal extension depends on the continuous delivery of vesicles to the growing tip. Here, we describe the identification of two cell end marker proteins, TeaA and TeaR, in Aspergillus nidulans, corresponding to Tea1 and Mod5 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Deletion of teaA or teaR caused zig-zag-growing and meandering hyphae, respectively. The Kelch-repeat protein TeaA, the putatively prenylated TeaR protein, and the formin SepA were highly concentrated in the Spitzenkörper, a vesicle transit station at the tip, and localized along the tip membrane. TeaA localization at tips depended on microtubules, and TeaA was required for microtuble convergence in the hyphal apex. The CENP-E family kinesin KipA was necessary for proper localization of TeaA and TeaR, but not for their transportation. TeaA and TeaR localization were interdependent. TeaA interacted in vivo with TeaR, and TeaA colocalized with SepA. Sterol-rich membrane domains localized at the tip in teaA and teaR mutants like in wild type, and filipin treatment caused mislocalization of both proteins. This suggests that sterol-rich membrane domains determine cell end factor destinations and thereby polarized growth.